Marie Skłodowska Curie (/ˈkjʊri, kjʊˈriː/ French: [kyʁi] Polish: [kʲiˈri] 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934 born Maria Salomea Skłodowska [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who carried out groundbreaking investigation on radioactivity. She was the to start with lady to acquire a Nobel Prize, the initial man or woman and only girl to earn two times, the only particular person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, and was section of the Curie loved ones legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to develop into a professor at the College of Paris, and in 1995 grew to become the initial girl to be entombed on her possess deserves in the Panthéon in Paris.
She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, portion of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw’s clandestine Traveling University and commenced her sensible scientific schooling in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to research in Paris, wherever she attained her bigger degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific perform. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her partner Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Her achievements incorporated the progress of the principle of radioactivity (a time period that she coined), procedures for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two aspects, polonium and radium. Beneath her way, the world’s to start with experiments into the treatment method of neoplasms ended up executed using radioactive isotopes. She established the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which continue to be significant centres of health care exploration these days. All through Environment War I, she designed cellular radiography units to supply X-ray products and services to discipline hospitals.
Though a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who applied equally surnames, by no means dropped her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the 1st chemical ingredient that she discovered—polonium, which she isolated in 1898—after her indigenous region.[a]
Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anemia from publicity to radiation in the system of her scientific investigate and in the training course of her radiological function at industry hospitals throughout Earth War I.